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      當前位置:首頁 > 資訊信息 > 新聞動態 > 詳細信息
      挪威夫婦發現大腦GPS獲諾獎 有助治療老年癡呆
      來源:挪威夫婦發現大腦GPS獲諾獎 有助治療老年癡呆 | 作者: | 發布時間:2014-10-30 8:34:42

      瑞典卡羅琳醫學院6日在斯德哥爾摩宣布,將2014年諾貝爾生理學或醫學獎授予擁有美國和英國雙重國籍的科學家約翰·奧基夫以及兩位挪威科學家梅-布里特·莫澤和愛德華·莫澤,以表彰他們發現大腦定位系統細胞的研究。

      諾貝爾獎評選委員會在聲明中說:“我們如何知道自己在哪里?我們如何從一個地方到另一個地方?我們如何在大腦中儲存信息,以便下一次能夠找到相同的路徑?”今年獲獎者的研究成就展示了較高認知功能的細胞基礎。他們發現了大腦的定位系統,即“內部的GPS”,從而使人類能夠在空間中定位自我。

      1971年,奧基夫發現了這種定位系統的第一個組成部分。他研究發現,老鼠在房間的某個特定位置時,其大腦海馬區的一些神經細胞總是處于激活狀態,而老鼠移動到房間其他位置時,其他神經細胞則被激活。奧基夫總結出,這些“位置細胞”在大腦中形成了關于房間的“地圖”。

      30多年后,莫澤夫婦于2005年發現了大腦定位系統的另一關鍵構成——“網格細胞”。這種細胞能形成坐標系,可以精確定位和尋找路徑。他們隨后的研究還展示出,這些“網格細胞”是如何確定位置并導航的。

      按照諾貝爾獎評選委員會的說法,奧基夫發現的“位置細胞”“對于研究大腦如何創造行為具有重大影響”,而莫澤夫婦發現的“網格細胞”幫助大腦劃分空間,精確計算所處空間起點到目標位置的距離。

      “得益于我們的‘位置細胞’和‘網格細胞’,我們不必在每次到訪一個城市時都帶著地圖找路,因為大腦中已經有了‘地圖’,”諾貝爾獎評選委員會一名成員評價,“沒有這些細胞,我們可能生存都很艱難。”

      英國牛津大學神經生理學教授安德魯·金評論,奧基夫的最早發現“為我們的認知帶來了革命”,而奧基夫和莫澤夫婦的發現印證動物電生理學研究對揭示大腦工作重大原理的重要性。

      因“網格細胞”研究可能有助于了解記憶產生的過程,解釋人們經常依據地點回憶起事件的現象,科學界期待大腦定位系統的發現能為有關阿爾茲海默氏癥(老年癡呆癥)的治療帶來福音。

      諾貝爾獎評選委員會指出,阿爾茲海默氏癥患者經常迷路,無法辨識周邊環境,“有關大腦定位系統的知識或許能幫助我們了解這些人所遭受的空間記憶缺失原理”。


      《世界復合醫學》

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